Bromine, from ancient Greek, meaning “stench”, is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35. It is a halogen.
Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline salts, analogous to table salt. The high solubility of bromide ions has caused its accumulation in the oceans, where it is abundantly available. Commercially, the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China.
Elemental bromine is a red-brown liquid at room temperature. It is corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. The major applications of bromine are as water purifier/disinfectant in swimming pools and hot tubs, and as flame retarders in all kinds of fabrics. Another key use of bromine compounds is in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals: Brominated substances are important ingredients of many over-the-counter and prescription drugs, including analgesics, sedatives, and antihistamines.